**NONMECHANICA****L FORMS OF WORK**

The treatment in Section 4–3 represents a fairly comprehensive coverage of mechanical forms of work. But some work modes encountered in practice are not mechanical in nature. However, these nonmechanical work modes can be treated in a similar manner by identifying a *generalize**d force F *acting in the direction of a *generalize**d displacement x. *Then the work associated with the differential displacement under the influence of this force is determined from d*W *= *F dx.*

Some examples of nonmechanical work modes are **electrical work, **where the generalized force is the *voltage *(the electrical potential) and the generalized displacement is the *electrical charge, *as discussed earlier; **magnetic work, **where the generalized force is the *magnetic field strength *and the generalized displacement is the total *magnetic dipole moment; *and **electrical polarization work, **where the generalized force is the *electric field strength *and the generalized displacement is the *polarization of the medium *(the sum of the electric dipole rotation moments of the molecules). Detailed consideration of these and other nonmechanical work modes can be found in specialized books on these topics.

#### Incoming search terms:

- non mechanical work
- non mechanical form of work
- example of non mechanical work
- non mechanical forms of work