#### ENERGY BALANCE FOR UNSTEADY-FLOW PROCESSES

During a steady-flow process, no changes occur within the control volume; thus, one does not need to be concerned about what is going on within the boundaries. Not having to worry about any changes within the control volume with time greatly simplifies the analysis.

Many processes of interest, however, involve *change**s *within the control volume with time. Such processes are called unsteady-flow, or transient-flow, processes. The steady-flow relations developed earlier are obviously not applicable to these processes. When an unsteady-flow process is analyzed, it is important to keep track of the mass and energy contents of the control volume as well as the energy interactions across the boundary.

Some familiar unsteady-flow processes are the charging of rigid vessels from supply lines (Fig. 5–49), discharging a fluid from a pressurized vessel, driving a gas turbine with pressurized air stored in a large container, inflating tires or balloons, and even cooking with an ordinary pressure cooker.

Unlike steady-flow processes, unsteady-flow processes start and end over some finite time period instead of continuing indefinitely. Therefore in this with the rate of changes (changes per unit time). An unsteady-flow system, in some respects, is similar to a closed system, except that the mass within the system boundaries does not remain constant during a process.

Another difference between steady- and unsteady-flow systems is that steady-flow systems are fixed in space, size, and shape. Unsteady-flow systems, however, are not (Fig. 5–50). They are usually stationary; that is, they are fixed in space, but they may involve moving boundaries and thus boundary work.

**Mass Balance**

Unlike the case of steady-flow processes, the amount of mass within the control volume *doe**s *change with time during an unsteady-flow process. The magnitude of change depends on the amounts of mass that enter and leave the control volume during the process. The mass balance for a system undergoing any process can be expressed as

where *i *= inlet, *e *= exit, 1 = initial state, and 2 = final state of the control volume; and the summation signs are used to emphasize that all the inlets and exits are to be considered. Often one or more terms in the equation above are zero. For example, *m**i *= 0 if no mass enters the control volume during the process, *m**e *= 0 if no mass leaves the control volume during the process, and *m*1 = 0 if the control volume is initially evacuated.

#### Energy Balance

The energy content of a control volume changes with time during an unsteady-flow process. The magnitude of change depends on the amount of energy transfer across the system boundaries as heat and work as well as on the amount of energy transported into and out of the control volume by mass during the process. When analyzing an unsteady-flow process, we must keep track of the energy content of the control volume as well as the energies of the incoming and outgoing flow streams.

The general energy balance was given earlier as

The general unsteady-flow process, in general, is difficult to analyze because the properties of the mass at the inlets and exits may change during a process. Most unsteady-flow processes, however, can be represented reasonably well by the **uniform-flow process, **which involves the following idealization: *The fluid flow at any inlet or exit is uniform and steady, and thus the fluid proper- ties do not change with time or position over the cross section of an inlet or exit. If they do, they are averaged and treated as constants for the entire process.*

Note that unlike the steady-flow systems, the state of an unsteady-flow sys- tem may change with time, and that the state of the mass leaving the control volume at any instant is the same as the state of the mass in the control volume at that instant. The initial and final properties of the control volume can be determined from the knowledge of the initial and final states, which are completely specified by two independent intensive properties for simple compressible systems.

Then the energy balance for a uniform-flow system can be expressed explicitly as

where e= *h *+ ke + pe is the energy of a flowing fluid at any inlet or exit per unit mass, and *e *= *u *+ ke + pe is the energy of the nonflowing fluid within the control volume per unit mass. When the kinetic and potential energy changes associated with the control volume and fluid streams are negligible, as is usually the case, the energy balance above simplifies to

Note that if no mass enters or leaves the control volume during a process (*m**i *= *m**e *= 0, and *m*1 = *m*2 = *m*), this equation reduces to the energy balance relation for closed systems (Fig. 5–51). Also note that an unsteady-flow system may involve boundary work as well as electrical and shaft work (Fig. 5–52).

Although both the steady-flow and uniform-flow processes are somewhat idealized, many actual processes can be approximated reasonably well by one of these with satisfactory results. The degree of satisfaction depends on the de- sired accuracy and the degree of validity of the assumptions made.

#### Incoming search terms:

- unsteady flow energy equation
- unsteady flow energy equation thermodynamics
- unsteady flow process
- unsteady flow thermodynamics
- first law for unsteady flow system
- generalised equation of unstudyflow process
- non steady flow energy equation
- what is aunsteady flow process
- steady and unsteady flow process
- examples of unsteady flow process
- unsteady flow in thermodynamics
- unsteady state energy equation
- sready flow and unsreadyvflow suitable example
- first law of thermodynamics unsteady flow process and equation
- unstudy flow process
- first law analysis of unsteady flow control volume
- thermodynamic First Law unsteady flow system
- balance equation for unsteady flow
- unsteady state energy balance equation
- Energy analysis for unsteady State Thermodynamics flow process
- diffrence between stedy and unstedy flow in material and energy balence
- energy balance on flow process
- control volume technique in variable flow process
- diagram unsteady flow process
- difference between steady and unsteady flow process in thermodynamics
- unsteady energy equation
- unsteadt state flow pricess
- transient energy equation open system
- what is unsteady flow energy
- unsteady flow thermodynamics problems
- unsteady flue of energy
- 1st of thermodynamics analysis of unsteady flow control volume
- what is an unsteady flow process
- variable flow process in thermodynamics
- application of first law for unsteady flow system
- unsteady state flow mi and me
- application of first law on variable flow energy equation
- unsteady state energy belan ewuation
- diploma unsteady flow equation in thermodynamic system
- unsteady state close system
- steady flow process vs unsteady flow process
- drive expression in energy balance in flow process
- mass balance for a simple steady flow
- first law of thermodynamics open system with unsteady state flow conditions
- First law of thermo dynamics for steady flow is given by
- energy balance in simple steady flow process
- First law analysis of unste
- first law analysis of u
- first law analysis o
- familiar examples of unsteady flow process
- explain unsteady flow process in thermodynamics
- eqution of non steady flow eqution in thermodtnamics
- energy balance in flow processes
- first law of unsteady flow system
- sfee for unsteady flow system
- open system unsteady state analysis
- nonsteady-flow processes
- NONSTEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION IN THERMODYNAMIC
- non steady flowenergy equation
- non steady flow energy equation thermodynamics
- energy analysis of unsteady-flow processes
- How much is the boundary work for steady-flow systems?
- energy balance equation for UNSTEADY STATE TRANSIENT
- example of steady state and unsteady state process