Power systems are continually evolving and with the increasing capability of computers and software, systems are becoming more precisely controlled for economy of operation and security.
The future is certain to include a greater proportion of primary energy from renew- able sources. Generators are likely to be distributed throughout the power system and there may be a very large number of mass-produced very small generators. The mode of operation of the power system will need to become more flexible and is likely to be based on local intelligent control. Operation of the distribution network as an active system can be anticipated, with routine flow reversal and continued operation under islanded conditions becoming feasible. It is expected that generation and load controllers will need to respond to local network conditions, for example reducing the output of relevant generators to cover the period of a circuit outage. This flexible response must be autonomous, to allow unmanned operation, and it would need to be controlled in a local decentralized manner.
We seem to be at the beginning of a new era of major change in power systems plant, technology and management. Great challenges and opportunities for electrical engineers lie ahead.