Diesel basics:Power and torque

Power and torque

Horsepower is the ability to perform work over time. In 1782, James Watt, a pioneer developer of steam engines, observed that one mine pony could lift 550 lb of coal one foot in one minute. Torque is the instantaneous twisting force applied to the crankshaft. In the English-speaking world, we usually express torque as pounds of force applied on a lever one foot long.

The two terms are related:

Horsepower torque X 2pi X rpm. Revolutions per minute is the time component. Torque displacement X 4pi X bmep. The latter term, brake mean effective pressure, is the average pressure applied to the piston during the expansion stroke.

High-performance diesels, such as used in European automobiles, develop max- imum horsepower at around 5000 rpm. Equivalent SI auto engines can turn almost twice as fast. Since rpm is part of the hp formula, these diesels fall short in the power department. An SI-powered car will have a higher top speed.

But, thanks to high effective brake mean pressures, diesels have the advantage of superior torque. A diesel-powered BMW or Mercedes-Benz easily out-accelerates its gasoline-powered cousins.

Fuel efficiency

High c/r’s (or more exactly, large ratios of expansion) give CI engines superior thermal efficiency. Under optimum conditions, a well-designed SI engine utilizes about 30% of the heat liberated from the fuel to turn the crankshaft. The remainder goes out the exhaust and into the cooling system and lubricating oil. CI engines attain thermal efficiencies of 40% and greater. By this measure—which is becoming increasingly critical as fears about global warming are confirmed—diesel engines are the most efficient practical form of internal combustion. (Gas turbines do better, but only at constant speeds.)

Excellent thermal efficiency, plus the volumetric efficiency afforded by an unthrottled intake manifold and the ability to recycle some exhaust heat by turbocharging, translate into fuel economy. It is not unreasonable to expect a specific fuel consumption of 0.35 lb/hp-hr from a CI engine operating near its torque peak. An SI engine can consume 0.50 lb/hp-hr under the same conditions.

The weight differential between diesel fuels (7.6 lb/US gal for No. 2D) and gaso- line (about 6.1 lb/US gal) gives the diesel an even greater advantage when con- sumption is figured in gallons per hour or mile. CI passenger cars and trucks deliver about 30% better mileage than the same vehicles with gasoline engines.

Diesel pickups and SUVs appeal in ways other than fuel economy. Owners of these vehicles tend to become diesel enthusiasts. I’m not sure why, but it probably has something to do with the sheer mechanical presence that industrial products radiate. Earlier generations had the same sort of love affair with steam.

Weight

The Cummins ISB Dodge pickup motor weighs 962 lb and develops 260 hp for a wt/hp ratio of 3.7:1. The 500-hp Caterpillar 3406E, a standard power plant for large (Grade-8) highway trucks comes in at 5.7 lb/hp. The Lugger, a marine engine of leg- endary durability, weighs 9.6 lb for each of its 120 horses. By comparison, the Chevrolet small block SI V-8 has an all-up weight of about 600 lb and with a bit of tweaking develops 300 hp.

Much of the weight of diesel engines results from the need to contain combus- tion pressures and heat that, near tdc, peak out at around 1000 psi and 3600°F. And, as mentioned earlier, bmep, or average cylinder pressures, are twice those of SI engines.

There are advantages to being built like a Sumo wrestler. Crankshaft bearings stay in alignment, cylinder bores remain round, and time between overhauls can extend for tens of thousands of hours.

Durability

Industrial diesel engines come out of a conservative design tradition. High ini- tial costs, weight, and moderate levels of performance are acceptable tradeoffs against early failure. The classic diesel is founded on heavy, fine-grained iron cast- ings, liberally reinforced with webbing and aged prior to machining. Buttressed main-bearing caps, pressed into the block and often cross-drilled, support the crank- shaft. Pistons run against replaceable liners, whose metallurgy can be precisely con- trolled. Some of the better engines, such as the Cummins shown in Fig. 2-9, feature straight-cut timing gears, which are virtually indestructible.

Until exhaust gas recirculation became the norm, heavy truck piston rings could, on occasion, go for a million miles between replacements. An early Caterpillar 3176 truck engine was returned to the factory for teardown after logging more than 600,000 miles. Main and connecting-rod bearings had been replaced (at 450,000 and 225,000 miles, respectively) and were not available for examination. The parts were said to be in good condition.

The crankshaft remained within tolerance, as did the rocker arms, camshaft jour- nals, and lower block casting. Valves showed normal wear, but were judged reusable. Connecting rods could have gone another 400,000 miles and pistons for 200,000 miles. The original honing marks were still visible on the cylinder liners.

But Caterpillar was not satisfied, and has since made a series of major revisions to the 3176, including redesigned pistons, rings, connecting rods, head gasket, rocker shafts, injectors, and water pump. Crankshaft rigidity has been improved, and tooling developed to give the cylinder liners an even more durable finish.

Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines-0008

Durability is not a Caterpillar exclusive: according to the EPA, heavy-truck engines have an average life cycle of 714,000 miles. Not a few Mercedes passenger cars have passed the three-quarter-million mile mark with only minor repairs.

This is not to say that diesels are zero-defect products. Industrial engines are less than perfect, and when mated with digital technology the problems multiply. Many of the worst offenders are clones, that is, diesels derived from existing SI engines. No one who was around at the time can forget the 1978 Oldsmobile Delta 88 Royale that sheared head bolts, crankshafts, and almost everything in between. Another clone that got off to a bad start was the Volkswagen. Like the Olds, it had problems with fasteners and soft crankshafts. But these difficulties were overcome. Today the VW TDi is the most popular diesel passenger-car engine in Europe, accounting for 40% of Volkswagen’s production.

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