Subtransmission systems are those circuits that supply distribution substa- tions. Several different subtransmission systems can supply distribution sub- stations. Common subtransmission voltages include 34.5, 69, 115, and 138 kV. Higher voltage subtransmission lines can carry more power with less losses over greater distances. Distribution circuits are occasionally supplied by high-voltage transmission lines such as 230 kV; such high voltages make for expensive high-side equipment in a substation. Subtransmission circuits are normally supplied by bulk transmission lines at subtransmission substa- tions. For some utilities, one transmission system serves as both the sub- transmission function (feeding distribution substations) and the transmission function (distributing power from bulk generators). There is much crossover in functionality and voltage. One utility may have a 23-kV subtransmission system supplying 4-kV distribution substations. Another utility right next door may have a 34.5-kV distribution system fed by a 138- kV subtransmission system. And within utilities, one can find a variety of different voltage combinations.
Of all of the subtransmission circuit arrangements, a radial configuration is the simplest and least expensive (see Figure 1.15). But radial circuits provide the most unreliable supply; a fault on the subtransmission circuit
can force an interruption of several distribution substations and service to many customers. A variety of redundant subtransmission circuits are avail- able, including dual circuits and looped or meshed circuits (see Figure 1.16). The design (and evolution) of subtransmission configurations depends on how the circuit developed, where the load is needed now and in the future, what the distribution circuit voltages are, where bulk transmission is avail- able, where rights-of-way are available, and, of course, economic factors.
Most subtransmission circuits are overhead. Many are built right along roads and streets just like distribution lines. Some — especially higher volt- age subtransmission circuits — use a private right-of-way such as bulk transmission lines use. Some new subtransmission lines are put under- ground, as development of solid-insulation cables has made costs more reasonable.
Lower voltage subtransmission lines (69, 34.5, and 23 kV) tend to be designed and operated as are distribution lines, with radial or simple loop arrangements, using wood-pole construction along roads, with reclosers and regulators, often without a shield wire, and with time-overcurrent protection. Higher voltage transmission lines (115, 138, and 230 kV) tend to be designed and operated like bulk transmission lines, with loop or mesh arrangements, tower configurations on a private right-of-way, a shield wire or wires for lightning protection, and directional or pilot-wire relaying from two ends. Generators may or may not interface at the subtransmission level (which can affect protection practices).